Economics & Business,
(flute), Music Conservatory “Niccolò Paganini”,
2004-today Professor, Department of Management & Technology, Università Commerciale "Luigi Bocconi", Milan, Italy
2000-2004 Professor, Sant’Anna School of Advanced
1992-2000 Associate Professor,
1990-1992 Contract Professor,
Strategic Management, Technology Strategy, Economics of Innovation and Technological Change.
I am interested in understanding how technology and innovation affect and are affected by company strategy, industry structure, and policy. Because technology and innovation are pervasive in economic activities, I ended up dealing with several topics and questions, ranging from micro and managerial issues to industry level and even more macro phenomena.
Dean of the PhD
School, Università Bocconi,
Editor: European Management Review
Member of the Executive
Committee of the
Gambardella, A., 2009, Innovazione e Sviluppo: Miti da Sfatare, Realtà da Costruire, Egea, Milano (in Italian).
Arora, A. and
Gambardella, A. (eds.), 2005, From Underdog to Tigers: The
Rise and Growth of the Software Industry in Some Emerging Economies,
Gambardella, A., Garcia-Fontes, F. (eds.), 2004, R&D, Innovation and
Competitiveness in the European Chemical Industry, Kluwer Publishers,
Gambardella, A., Granstrand, O. (eds.), 2004, The Economics and Management of Technological
and Gambardella, A. (eds.), 2004, Building
High-Tech Clusters: Silicon Valley and Beyond,
Fosfuri, A. and Gambardella, A., 2001, Markets
for Technology: The Economics of Innovation and Corporate Strategy, The MIT Press,
A. and Malerba, F. (eds.), 1999, The Organization of Economic Innovation in Europe,
Gambardella, A., 1995, Science and
Main Publications in Journals
Conti, R., Gambardella, A. and E. Novelli, 2013, “Research on Markets for Inventions and Implications for R&D Allocation Strategies,” Academy of Management Annals, forthcoming.
Gambardella, A., 2013, “The Economic Value of Patented Inventions: Thoughts and Some Open Questions,” International Journal of Industrial Organization, forthcoming.
Gambardella, A. and Giarratana, M., 2013, “General Technological Capabilities, Product Market Fragmentation, and Markets for Technology”, Research Policy, Vol. 42, 315-325.
Di Stefano, G., Gambardella, A. and G. Verona, 2012, “Technology Push and Demand Pull Perspectives in Innovation Studies: Current Findings and Future Research Directions”, Research Policy, Vol. 41, 1283-1295.
Gambardella, A. and Giarratana, M., 2010, “Localized Knowledge Spillovers and Skill-Biased Performance”, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Vol. 4, 323-339.
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A., 2010, “Ideas for Rent: An Overview of Markets for Technology”, Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 19 (3), 775-803.
Gambardella, A. and McGahan, A., 2010, “Business-Model Innovation, General Purpose Technologies, Specialization and Industry Change”, Long Range Planning, Vol.43, pp.262-271.
Gambardella, A. and Giarratana, M., 2010, “Organizational Attributes and the Distribution of Rewards in a Region: Managerial Firms vs Knowledge Clusters”, Organization Science, Vol. 21 (2), pp. 573–586.
Gambardella, A., Giarratana, M., Panico, C., 2010, “How and When Should Companies Retain their Human Capital? Contracts, Incentives, and Human Resource Implications”, Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 19 (1), pp. 1-24.
Arora, A., Gambardella, A., Magazzini, L., Pammolli, F., 2009, “A Breadth of Fresh Air? Firm Type, Scale, Scope and Selection Effects in Drug Development”, Management Science, Vol. 55 (10), pp.1638-1653.
Mariani, M., Torrisi, S., 2008, “How ‘Provincial is Your Region? Openness and
Regional Performance in
Dosi, G., Gambardella, A., Grazzi, M., Orsenigo, L., 2008, “Technological Revolutions and the Evolution of Industrial Structures. Assessing the Impact of New Technologies on the Size and Boundaries of the Firms”, Capitalism & Society, Vol. 3 (1), Article 6.
Gambardella, A., Harhoff, D., Verspagen, B., 2008, “The Value of European Patents”, European Management Review, Vol. 5 (2), pp.69-84.
A., Giuri, P., Luzzi, A., 2007, “The Market for Patents in
Giuri, P., Mariani, M., Brusoni, S., Crespi, G., Francoz, D., Gambardella, A., Garcia-Fontes, W., Geuna, A., Gonzales, R., Harhoff, D., Hoisl, K., Lebas, C., Luzzi, A., Magazzini, L., Nesta, L., Nomaler, O., Palomeras, N., Patel, P., Romanelli, M., Verspagen, B., 2007, “Inventors and Invention Processes in Europe. Results from the PatVal-EU Survey”, Research Policy, Vol. 36 (8), pp.1107-1127.
Gambardella, A. and Hall, B., 2006, "Proprietary vs Public Domain Licensing of Software and Research Products", Research Policy, Vol.35, pp.875-892.
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A., 2005, “The Impact of NSF Support on Basic Research in Economics”, Les Annales d’Economie et des Statistiques, Special Issue in Honor of Zvi Griliches, N°79-80.
Gambardella, A., 2005, “Patents and the Division of Inventive Labor”, Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol.14 (6), pp.1223-1233. (Comment to Arora and Merges, ICC, 2004).
A., 2002, “Transaction Costs and Increasing Returns in the Market for
T., Gambardella, A., Saxenian, A., 2001, “Old Economy Inputs for New Economy
Outputs: Cluster Formation in the
Arora, A., Fosfuri, A., and Gambardella, A., 2001, “Markets for Technology and their Implications for Corporate Strategy”, Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol.10 (2), pp.417-449.
Arora, A., Fosfuri, A., and Gambardella, A., 2001, “Specialized Technology Suppliers, International Spillovers and Investments: Evidence from the Chemical Industry”, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 65 (1), pp. 31-54.
Arora, A., David, P., and Gambardella, A., 1998, “Reputation and Competence in Publicly Funded Science: Estimating the Effects on Research Group Productivity”, Les Annales d’Economie et des Statistiques, No 49/50, pp.163-198.
Gambardella, A. and Torrisi, S., 1998, “Does Technological Convergence Imply Convergence in Markets ? Evidence from the Electronics Industry”, Research Policy, Vol.27, pp.445-463.
Arora, A., Gambardella, A., and Rullani, E., 1997, “Division of Labour and the Locus of Inventive Activity”, Journal of Management and Governance, Vol.1 (1), pp.123-140.
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A., 1997, “Public Policy Towards Science: Picking Stars or Spreading the Wealth ?”, Revue d’Economie Industrielle, N.79, pp.63-75.
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A., 1997, “Domestic Markets and International Competitiveness: Generic and Product Specific Competencies in the Engineering Sector”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 18 (Summer Special Issue), pp.53-74.
Gambardella, A. e Garcia, W., 1996, “Research Linkages through European Research Funding”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Vol.4, pp.123-138.
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A., 1994, “The Changing Technology of Technical Change: General and Abstract Knowledge and the Division of Innovative Labour”, Research Policy, Vol.23, pp.523-532. [12th most cited Research Policy Article in 1992-1999. See Research Policy, December 1999, Special Issue.]
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A., 1994, “Evaluating Technological Information and Utilizing it”, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol.24, pp.91-114.
Della Valle, F. and Gambardella, A., 1993, “Biological Revolution and Strategy for Innovation in Pharmaceutical Companies”, R&D Management, Vol.23 (4), pp.287-301. [Winner of the Epton Prize for the Best 1993 Article in R&D Management. See R&D Management, 1994, Vol.24 (3), pp.295-6]
Gambardella, A., 1992, “Competitive Advantages from In-house Basic Research”, Research Policy, Vol.21, pp.391-407. [6th most cited Research Policy Article in 1992-1999. See Research Policy, December 1999, Special Issue]
Arora A. e Gambardella A., 1990, “Complementarity and External Linkages: The Strategies of the Large Firms in Biotechnology”, Journal of Industrial Economics, Vol.XXXVIII, N.4 (June), pp.361-379.
Main Essays in Books
Arora, A. and
Gambardella, A., 2010, “Markets for Technology”, in Hall. B. and
and Gambardella, A., 2009, “Strategic Organization of R&D”, in Nickerson,
J. and Silverman, B. (eds.) Economic
Institutions of Strategy, Emerald Press,
Fosfuri, A. and Gambardella, A., 2006, “Markets for Technology: ‘Panda’s
Thumbs’, ‘Calypso Policies’ and Other Institutional Considerations, in
Antonelli, C., Foray, D., Hall, B. and Steinmueller, W.E. (eds.) New Frontiers in the Economics of Innovation
and New Technology: Essays in Honour of Paul A. David, Edward Elgar,
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A., 2006, “Emerging Issues in the New Economy and Globalization”, in Bianchi, P. and Labory, S. (eds.) Handbook of Industrial Policy, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham UK.
Arora, A., Fosfuri, A. and Gambardella, A., 2005, “Markets for Technology, Intellectual Property Rights and Development”, in Maskus, K. and Reichman, J. (eds.) International Public Goods and Transfer of Technology under a Globalized Intellectual Property Regime, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A., 2005, "The Globalization of the
Software Industry: Perspectives and Opportunities for Developed and Developing
Countries", in Jaffe, A., Lerner, J. and Stern, S. (eds.) Innovation
Policy and the Economy (Volume 5), The MIT Press,
Gambardella, A., Garcia-Fontes, W., and Petit, G., 2000, “R&D,
Innovation and Corporate Performance in the Chemical Industry: A Case Study”,
in Buigues, P., Jacquemin, A. and Marchipont, J.F. (eds.) Competitiveness
and the Value of Intangible Assets, Edward Elgar Publisher, Cheltenham
Arora, A. and
Gambardella, A., 1999, “The Chemical Industry”, in Mowery, D. (ed.)
and Gambardella, A., 1998, “The Division of Inventive Labor and the Extent of
the Market”, in Helpman, E. (ed.) General-Purpose
Technologies and Economic Growth, MIT Press,
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A., 1998, “Evolution of Industry Structure in the Chemical Industry”, in Arora, A., Landau, R., and Rosenberg, N. (eds.) Dynamics of Long-Run Growth in the Chemical Industry, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Arora, A. and Gambardella, A., 1995, “Division of Innovative Labour in Biotechnology”, in Rosenberg, N. and Geijins, A. (eds.) University-Industry Interface and Medical Innovation, National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC.
Op-Ed Articles (in Italian)
“Regole Snelle e Incentivi all’Innovazione”, Il Sole 24 Ore, March 8, 2013, p.15
“Ma Chi Controllerà i Controllori?”, Corriere della Sera, July 31, 2011, p.24 (with Fabio Pammolli)
“Innovazione e Sviluppo”, Il Sole 24 Ore, Inserto Nova 24, May 7, 2009, p.9.
“La Guerra Sbagliata di Mediaset”, Il Corriere della Sera, August 6, 2008, p.35
“Caccia All’Idea che Vale Oro”, Il Sole 24 Ore, Inserto Nova 24, October 4, 2007, p.7.
“Brevetti Regole Oltre l’Antitrust”, Il Sole 24 Ore, September 22, 2007, p.10 (with Fabio Pammolli)
“Brevetti da Battere All’Asta”, Il Sole 24 Ore, Inserto Nova 24, June 14, 2007, p.6.
“Alla Ricerca di Nuove Specializzazioni”, La Voce, January 4, 2006
“Licenza d'innovare”, La Voce, March 14, 2005
“Vogliamo Combattere la Povertà? Diamo Farmaci al Terzo Mondo”, Il Riformista, January 8, 2003, p.2 (with Fabio Pammolli)
“Docenti Universitari Vecchi? Cambiamo i Corsi di Dottorato”, Il Corriere della Sera, August 22, 2002, p.5 (with Giovanni Dosi)
Participation in Research Programmes
Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) (PRIN 2012) “Market and Non-Market Mechanisms for the Exchange and Diffusion of Innovation: When Do They Work, When Do They Not Work, and Why Should We Care”, MIUR, Protocol N.2010H37KAW_001 (February 2013-February 2016) [Co-ordinator of the Project]
Commmission, The Changing Nature of Internationalization of Innovation in
European Commmission, Innovative S&T Indicators Combining Patent Data and Surveys: Empirical Models and Policy Analyses, Contract N. 217299 (April 2008-March 2011) [Co-ordinator of the Project]
European Science Foundation, Program European Collaborative Research Project in the Social Sciences (ECRPSS) 4th Call, Science and Technology Research in a Knowledge-Based Economy (March 2006-March 2009)
Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) “Survey of Italian Inventors. The Determinants of the Value of the Italian Patents and of the Scientific Productivity. Empirical Models and Policy Implications.”, MIUR, Protocol N.2003133821 (March 2007-March 2009) [Co-ordinator of the Project]
European Commission, DG Internal Market and Services, Study on Evaluating the Knowledge Economy - What Are Patents Actually Worth? The Value of Patents for Today Economy and Society, Contract No ETD/2004/IM/E3/77 (December 2004-March 2006) [Co-ordinator of the Project]
European Commission, DG Science and Technology, European Policy for Intellectual Property (EPIP), Thematic Network, Contract N. HPSE-CT-2002-60053 (November 2002-November 2005)
European Commission, DG Science and Technology, Economic Change: Micro-Foundations of Organisational and Institutional Changes in Europe, Contract N. SERD-2002-00117 (October 2002-October 2005)
European Commission, DG Science and Technology, The Value of European Patents: Empirical Models and Policy Implications Based on a Survey of European Inventors, Contract N. HPV2-2001-00013 (January 2002-June 2004) [Co-ordinator of the Project]
European Commission, DG Enterprise, The Competitiveness of the European Pharmaceutical Industry, (April-June 2000)
Institute for Economic Policy Research (
European Commission, DG XII, Targeted Socio-Economic Research (TSER), Growth, Inequality and Training, Contract N. SOE2-CT98-3073 (December 1998 – December 2000)
European Commission, DG XII, Targeted Socio-Economic Research (TSER), The Relationships between Science and Technology Policies and Broad Industrial Policy, Contract N. SOE1-CT97-1053 (December 1997 - February 2000)
European Commission, DG XII, Targeted Socio-Economic Research (TSER), From Science to Products, Contract N. SOE1-CT97-1059 (December 1997 - May 2000)
European Commission, DG XII, Targeted Socio-Economic Research (TSER), Innovation, R&D, and Productivity, Contract N. SOE1-CT96-1020 (June 1996-June 1999)
Center for Economic Policy Research (Stanford), Strategies for Growth: Lessons from the Chemical Industry (January1993-July 1996)
DG XII, Human Capital & Mobility (HCM), The
Economics of Scientific and Technological Research in Europe, Contract
Several research programmes of the Italian Research Council (CNR) and the Italian Ministry of Scientific and Technological Research (MURST)